Index 2024
101/ 180
Score : 53.23
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
97/ 180
Score : 57.57
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

The Israeli media landscape was affected by the formation of a new government at the end of 2022, led by a conservative political current. Since the start of the war in Gaza, launched by Israel on 7 October 2023 following the deadly Hamas attack, while more than 100 journalists were killed in six months in Gaza by the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), pressure on journalists in Israel increased. Disinformation campaigns and repressive laws have multiplied in Israel.

Media landscape

In 2023, the far right Channel 14 became the second-most watched TV channel in Israel, following Channel 12Ynet is the most widely read news site in the country, and the daily newspaper Haaretz has considerable influence despite limited readership and despite the pressures its journalists face. Other dailies that compete in the print media include Yedioth Ahronoth and Israel Hayom (Israel Today). Faced with poor representation in the media of certain segments of Israel’s population, media outlets catering to the Arabic and Russian-speaking audiences, and the Orthodox Jewish community, have emerged.

Political context

Politicians have significant influence over appointments to the broadcasting regulatory bodies. Channel 14 is known to provide very favourable coverage of the prime minister, with few critical voices. Since the start of the war with Hamas, a majority of the media has increasingly relayed the government’s propaganda in favour of the war, and critical voices find it difficult to be heard. Coverage of the war in Gaza has been seriously hindered, as only journalists embedded with the IDF are allowed to enter the enclave.

Legal framework

Under Israeli military censorship, reporting on various security issues requires prior approval by the authorities. In addition to the possibility of civil defamation suits, journalists can also be charged with criminal defamation and “insulting a public official”. In 2023, Parliament passed an amendment to the anti-terrorism law that punishes those who “systematically and continuously consume terrorist publications” or who broadcast  “a direct call to commit an act of terrorism”. Its broad interpretation in the context of war carries risks for press freedom. A second law, approved by Parliament in 2024, makes it possible to prohibit the broadcast of  foreign media that threaten state security.  

Economic context

Most of Israel’s media outlets are owned by large corporations or businessmen who are difficult to investigate and who use them to pressure regulators and elected officials.

Sociocultural context

Israeli journalists identified as Arab face more intimidation while working. Since the start of the war in Gaza, the authorities have intensified repression against these journalists. as well as against foreign and Israeli journalists who deviate from the government line in their coverage of the war. Organised crime networks try to restrict coverage of their criminal activities, and in the ultra-Orthodox media, women are almost completely excluded. 


Attacks by organised crime and police brutality during protests are the main concerns regarding the safety of journalists in Israel. Crackdowns on journalists covering anti-government protests have intensified since the national security minister, Itamar Ben-Gvir, a far-right politician, took control of the police at the end of 2022. A reporter was killed in the line of duty during the Hamas attack, and Arab journalists covering the war from Israel face threats. Dozens of journalists arrested in Palestine are being held in Israeli prisons.