Index 2024
93/ 180
Score : 55.92
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
99/ 180
Score : 57.38
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

Haiti’s journalists suffer from a cruel lack of financial resources, an absence of institutional support and difficulty accessing information. Since 2021, they have also been the target of gangs, and have often been victims of threats, attacks, kidnapping or murder with complete impunity. Since the fall of Ariel Henry’s government in March 2024, journalists have been caught between a wave of widespread violence and the social, economic and political crisis.

Media landscape

Radio is the most widely followed mass medium. The country has more than 700 radio and TV stations, but only half operate legally with a licence from Conatel, the agency that regulates communications. The privately owned media, which are heavily influenced by the interests of their owners, tend to censor themselves. Haiti’s national radio and TV broadcaster, RTNH, is the primary state media outlet.

Political context

Haiti has been embroiled in a profound political and social crisis for decades. President Jovenel Moïse’s assassination in July 2021 in a general climate of insecurity and violence opened the way to an era of even greater uncertainty. Despite promising to hold elections, Prime Minister Ariel Henry’s transitional government remained in place for nearly three years. Because of this power grab seen as illegitimate, numerous protests took place in February 2024, and on 13 March, while armed gangs controlled 80% of the capital, Port-au-Prince, Ariel Henry resigned. The deepening crisis directly impacted journalists, who were victims of increased violence.

Legal framework

The constitution guarantees freedom of the press, but in practice, journalists face many obstacles. Even when journalists report credible death threats to the authorities, little is ever done aside from filing a complaint, and media professionals do not benefit from any protective measures.

Economic context

Haiti has been one of the poorest countries in the Americas for nearly a century. Its economy, essentially based on agriculture, is vulnerable to natural disasters. The country  is also heavily dependent on international aid and remittances from the diaspora. Journalism is one of the lowest paid professions and, aside from those working for the state media and a few privately owned media, reporters struggle to meet their basic food needs.

Sociocultural context

Haiti is culturally rich, especially in art, music, dance and theatre. These resources constitute a development factor capable of projecting a different image of the country and attracting tourists. Existing infrastructure on the island is damaged by successive natural disasters.


Since 2018, Haiti has seen frequent and often violent street protests during which reporters face intimidation and violent attacks by both the police and protesters. Increasingly vilified and vulnerable, journalists have also been targeted by gangs since 2021 and have been kidnapped or murdered with complete impunity. In 2022, at least six journalists were killed in connection with their work, making Haiti one of the region’s most dangerous countries for media personnel. In the absence of the rule of law, this increased violence is committed with impunity. As the gangs have extended their control over the capital, journalists have been able to work in fewer and fewer districts, not without considerable risk. Many have resigned themselves to fleeing abroad.